Peer Relations

Peer Relations

Assessment Instructions


Peer relations are increasingly important in the context of development during middle childhood. Bullying is a serious issue for individuals, schools, and communities and can affect development in the physical, cognitive, social, and emotional domains of child development.

For this assessment, review the resources about peer relationships and bullying. Additionally, research the topic further, drawing on the Capella University Library and other resources, to learn more about the impact of bullying. Then, develop a 4–5-page research paper about how bullying affects the development of children. Include the following in your paper:

Describe two of the different roles children play in bullying, choosing from the list below:
Kids who bully.
Kids who are bullied.
Kids who assist.
Kids who reinforce.
Kids who defend.
Apply at least one psychological theory that helps explain the issue of bullying.
Explain how peer relations and peer acceptance are related to bullying behavior in schools. Support your writing with scholarly articles about peer relations and bullying from the Capella library.
Describe at least two proactive strategies that families, schools, and communities can adopt that address the bullying problem. In your discussion, describe how at least one of the following domains of development is affected:
Conclude by reflecting on your own experiences or the experiences of others who were bullied during the school years and how the application of proactive strategies could have helped alleviate the bullying problem.
Be sure to cite your sources throughout your paper and to include a complete reference list.

You are urged to use Capella University’s Writing Center to help you develop clear and effective writing. Through the Writing Center, you will be able to receive feedback on your writing, use writing resources, discover new writing strategies, and explore different ways to draft, revise, edit, and proofread your own work.

If you wish, you may use the APA Paper Template, linked in the Resources, to complete your assessment.

Additional Requirements

Written communication: Ensure that your writing is free of errors that detract from the overall message.
APA formatting: Format your paper according to APA style.
Length: Write 4–5 typed and double-spaced pages.
Font and font size: Times New Roman, 12 point.
The resources provided here are optional and support the assessment. They provide helpful information about the topics. You may use other resources of your choice to prepare for this assessment; however, you will need to ensure that they are appropriate, credible, and valid. The PSYC-FP2700 – Child Development Library Guide can help direct your research. The Supplemental Resources and Research Resources, both linked from the left navigation menu in your courseroom, provide additional resources to help support you.

Child Development and Bullying
These resources describe the roles of children in bullying and apply theory to explain bullying.

Berk, L. E., & Meyers, A. B. (2016). Infants and children: Prenatal through middle childhood (8th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson. Available from the bookstore.
Chapter 13, “Emotional and Social Development in Middle Childhood,” pages 472–515.
This chapter discusses development in older children, including the importance of peer groups.
Ferráns, S. D., & Selman, R. L. (2014). How students’ perceptions of the school climate influence their choice to upstand, bystand, or join perpetrators of bullying. Harvard Educational Review, 84(2), 162–187, 278.
Bartlett, C. P., Prot, S., Anderson, C. & Gentile, D. A. (2017). An empirical examination of the strength differential hypothesis in cyberbullying behavior. Psychology of Violence, 7(1), 22–32.
Proactive Strategies to Address Bullying
McCormac, M. E. (2015). Preventing and responding to bullying: An elementary school’s 4-year journey. Professional School Counseling, 18(1), 1–14.
Anti-Bullying Network. (n.d.). Retrieved from
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (n.d.). Retrieved from
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