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Please write a paragraph responding to the discussion bellow. Add citations and references in alphabetical order.


Sampling theory as a field of statistics is related to the gathering, analysis and understanding of data collected from random samples of inhabitants under study. The application of sampling theory is not only concerned with the appropriate choice of observations from the population that will establish the random sample, it also includes the usage of probability theory, along with earlier knowledge regarding the population limits, to study the data and facts from the random sample and develop deductions from the study. The normal distribution, accompanied by associated probability distributions, is most greatly used in developing the speculative background for sampling theory.

Sampling theory was developed to determine the most effective way to acquire a sample that accurately reflects the population under study. Key concepts of sampling theory include populations, target population, sampling or eligibility criteria, accessible population, elements, representativeness, sampling frames, and sampling plans or methods (Burns & Groves, 2013). A sampling plan or method outlines strategies used to obtain a sample for a study. Like a design, a sampling plan is not specific to a study. The plan is designed to increase representativeness and decrease systematic variation or bias. The sampling plan may use probability (random) or nonprobability (nonrandom) sampling methods. When critically appraising a study, identify the study sampling plan as either probability or nonprobability.

Burns, N., Gray, J., Grove, S. (2013). Understanding Nursing Research, Building an Evidence-Based Practice, 6th Edition. Elsevier Saunders, St.Louis, Missouri.