Critique of Research Studies – Part 3
Critique of Research Studies Instructions Directions: Complete a critique of the quantitative and qualitative articles
that were submitted in Topic 3. This assignment will be completed in three parts. Refer to the information below as a guide to the information that should be included in each part. Follow the guidelines for the quantitative and qualitative article critiques in Box 5.2: Guide to an Overall Critique of a Quantitative Research Report, and Box 5.3: Guide to an Overall Critique of a Qualitative Research Report, in Chapter 5 of the Nursing Research: Generating and Assessing Evidence for Nursing Practice textbook. 1. Utilize a central heading to indicate that what follows is the critique of the articles. 2. The side headings of the critique for each article should follow the headings in Box 5.2 and Box 5.3 in Chapter 5 of the Nursing Research: Generating and Assessing Evidence for Nursing Practice textbook. 3. Note that within these basic guidelines, there are additional references to Detailed Critiquing Guidelines found in additional boxes in other chapters of the Nursing Research: Generating and Assessing Evidence for Nursing Practice textbook focused on the various elements of a research study report. Use these to expand the research study and to learn specific terminology appropriate to the critique of research. When turning in the final submission, please put the elements in the following order: Quantitative Article Critique, Qualitative Article Critique, References (which should include the two articles, the text, and any other additional sources). Critique of Research Studies – Part 1: Due Topic 4 For Part 1 of the critique, focus only on the following segments for each article: Quantitative • Title • Abstract • Introduction o Statement of the problem o Hypotheses or research questions o Literature review o Conceptual/Theoretical framework Qualitative • Title • Abstract • Introduction o Statement of the problem o Research questions o Literature review o Conceptual underpinnings © 2017. Grand Canyon University. All Rights Reserved. Critique of Research Studies – Part 2: Due Topic 6 For Part 2 of the critique, focus only on the following segments for each article: Quantitative • Method o Protection of human rights o Research design o Population and sample o Data collection and measurement o Procedures Qualitative • Method o Protection of participants’ rights o Research design and research tradition o Sample and setting o Data collection o Procedures o Enhancement of trustworthiness Critique of Research Studies – Part 3: Due Topic 8 For Part 3 of the critique, focus only on the following segments for each article: Quantitative • Results o Data analysis o Reliability and validity • Discussion o Interpretation of findings o Implications/Recommendations • Global Issues o Presentation o Researcher credibility o Summary assessment Qualitative • Results o Data analysis o Theoretical integrations • Discussion o Interpretation of the findings o Implications/Recommendations • Global Issues o Presentation o Researcher credibility o Summary assessment 2 Running head: APPRAISAL OF RESEARCH STUDIES Appraisal of Research Studies Jeevan Simon NUR 504 Grand Canyon University Sep 5th, 2018 1 APPRAISAL OF RESEARCH STUDIES 2 Quantitative Article Critique Title and Abstract The title is succinct, and it suggests variables of determinants of nursing turnover. The study is a quantitative examination of the determinants and the implication on the nursing shortage in healthcare. The study integrates quantitative methodology of research work. The study focuses on the quantification of nurse turnover and results are supported by generation of various numerical data, use of tables and graphs and making of numerical and inferential comparisons. Researchers appreciate the fact that the culture of nurses leaving their medical jobs has been a global issue of concern. The abstract was clear and concise. Major aim of the study was to identify indomitable evidence of determinants and the consequences nursing turning over rates in healthcare industry (Halter et al., 2017). Introduction Generally, the stated problem is clear, grounded on reviewed articles and of significant impact to the nursing profession. According to the article, the culture of nurses leaving their jobs has had a significant impact to the entire process of discharging healthcare services and products to the target customers. Limited retention of healthcare professionals worsened by nurses who are not properly drilled to handle stiff requirements of healthcare industry is detrimental to healthcare industry. The study is a quantitative determination of the factors that have led to such nauseating occurrence in healthcare industry by outlining necessary recommendations (Halter et al., 2017). APPRAISAL OF RESEARCH STUDIES 3 Hypotheses or Research Questions There is no clear hypothesis of research questions in the study thus this is one of the weaknesses researchers failed to state while carrying out the study. There is no scientific justification of the absence of the hypothesis (Halter et al., 2017). Literature Review The study relied on reviewing scholarly (primary sources) articles that were published between 1990 and January 2015. The reviewed sources were extracted from electronic databases such as Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts among others. According to the researchers, all stages of article review were considered because the technique of Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews was embraced in the process of reviewing nine scholarly articles (Halter et al., 2017). Conceptual/Theoretical Framework Articulated of conceptual/theoretical framework is well captured and key concepts such as nursing turning over ratio have been clearly defined. The entire study was guided by the quality of the primary studies, the quality of parameters they measure, the overview contained in the article and scholarly evidences. As per the results, there was no clear evidence due to a number of limitations. Determinants of the conceptual/theoretical framework are described in economic terms and other issues such as healthcare managerial style and supervisory support factors (Halter et al., 2017). APPRAISAL OF RESEARCH STUDIES 4 Qualitative Article Critique Title and Abstract The title of the study is succinct as it contains variables that are statistically measurable. The study focused on understanding depression as determined by views of the research informants. The study relied on semi-structured interview to collect views of the research participants in order to come up with a comprehensive conclusion of the views relating to depression especially among aged people. According to authors, depression is major mental illness that affect people of old age. There are number of negative outcomes that are associated with depression as mental disorder (cognitive impairment and non-suicidal mortality among others) (Stark et al., 2018). Introduction Stated problem is straightforward and contains an element of statistical significance to the nursing profession. According to Stark et al. 2018, old aged people have become vulnerable to depression despite of advanced medical procedures and healthcare interventions to address the problem. Negative health implications caused by depression have propelled researchers to carry out extensive research in order to understand underlying factors of depression. Therefore, it is important to investigate patient’s perspective on depression so that the process of ascertaining optimum management of depression especially at late life is made possible (Stark et al., 2018). APPRAISAL OF RESEARCH STUDIES 5 Research Questions There are no clearly stated research questions (without any concrete explanation of their absence) though the semi-structured interview addresses the following issues as they relate to depression: general knowledge and beliefs of patients on depression, depression in adults, treatment of depression, and attitude of patients towards dealing with depression and individual attitudes towards individuals suffering from depression (Stark et al., 2018). Literature Review The article relies on more than ten scholarly articles addressing the problem of depression among old people. The articles were extracted from popular databases such as Google scholar, PubMed among others. The authors relied on the reviewed articles that formed basis of the new study. Articles used were of high quality primary sources (Stark et al., 2018). Conceptual Underpinnings Key terms such as depression, opportunities for depression management and old aged patients are clearly defined. The study is based on the views of the 75 primary care patients aged seventy-five years and above and how manifested symptoms of depression. The process of collecting views was done in three cities in Germany. The study participants were recruited from the Age Mode cohort study. A few criteria such as age of the patient were highly considered (Stark et al., 2018). 6 APPRAISAL OF RESEARCH STUDIES References Halter, M., Boiko, O., Pelone, F., Beighton, C., Harris, R., Gale, J. …& Drennan, V. (2017). The determinants and consequences of adult nursing staff turnover: a systematic review of systematic reviews. BMC Health Services Research, 17(1). doi:10.1186/s12913-0172707-0. Stark, A., Kaduszkiewicz, H., Stein, J., Maier, W., Heser, K., Weyerer, S. …& Scherer, M. (2018). A qualitative study on older primary care patients’ perspectives on depression and its treatments-potential barriers to and opportunities for managing depression. BMC Family Practice. 19(1). doi:10.1186/s12875-017-0684-3. Running head: EBP ARTICLE SUMMARY 1 EBP Article Summary Jeevan Simon NUR 504 Grand Canyon University August 15th, 2018 PEER REVIEWED ARTICLE SUMMARY 2 Evidence Based Practice Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) is a critical problem resolving approach that has been used to improve patient care within a healthcare. According to Melnyk, Gallagher‐Ford, Long & Fineout‐Overholt (2014), the adoption of a set of EBP skills can be used to advance healthcare reliability, quality, patient outcomes and decrease expenses. Melnyk, Gallagher‐Ford, Long & Fineout‐Overholt (2014), explains the need for EBP for the healthcare institutions to achieve high performing systems that can be used to deliver effective care services for better health outcomes. In addition to presenting the focus of the article, this paper summarizes its key points and lists the steps for the development of an EBP. The paper also discusses the implementation of the EBP in a practice problem; management of falls among the older adults. Summary of Key Points of the Article The first key point presented in the article is the aspect of EBP in healthcare. Ideally, EBP is an essential component for the delivery of services that incorporates evidence from welldesigned studies and the clinician’s proficency. EBP is provided in the perspectives of caring and culture, clinicians come up with the best decisions that yield positive patient outcome. Notably, the context of caring entails; research evidence & evidenced grounded theories, medical experience and experience from the evaluation of the patient’s health history, and patient’s preferences and values. Ideally, these elements contribute the quality outcomes of the patients. The competencies for nursing is another key concept presented in the article. According to Melnyk, Gallagher‐Ford, Long & Fineout‐Overholt (2014), competence entails the ability to do and complete something well. Ideally, competency is an essential mechanism that supports the PEER REVIEWED ARTICLE SUMMARY 3 health care professions in providing reliable health care services. While there is an overall expectation for the healthcare system to participate in EBP, there is much vagueness on the level of involvement. The EBP competencies support the health care professionals in delivering high quality and safe care in the hospitals. As such, the EBP proficiencies should be incorporated into nursing practice, research, policy, management, and education. Moreover, the articles present strategies for the integration of EBP competencies. These measures include promoting a cultural and context that supports EBP, establishing EBP performance expectations for all nurse leaders and clinicians and sustaining EB activities and culture. The competencies recommended by article for the registered professional nurses and the advanced practice nurses comprise of questioning clinical practices for the purposes of enhancing the excellence of care, describing the clinical complications with the use of internal evidence, utilizing the PICOT format, searching external evidence, engaging in critical appraisal, evaluating the gathered evidence and collecting practice. In addition, the competencies include integrating the gather evidence, implementing practice changes based on the evidence, evaluating outcomes, disseminating the best practices and sustaining the EBP culture. Steps of Developing and Implementing an EBP. The following presents a list of developing and implementing an EBP: 1. Cultivating a spirit of inquiry 2. Ask clinical questions in PICOT format 3. Search the best evidence 4. Critically appraise the evidence 5. Assimilate the evidence with clinical expertise and patient values and preferences PEER REVIEWED ARTICLE SUMMARY 4 6. Appraise the conclusions of the practice findings 7. Broadcast EBP outcomes. Application of the Learned Information Falls are the primary cause of both fatal and non-fatal injuries between the older adults. Ideally, falls have contributed to the morbidity and death among the senior citizens in the United States. Senior adults are often at risk of falls for various reasons regardless of the place of residence (Burns, Stevens & Lee, 2016). The prevention of falls has been an important issue in today’s health care organization. Nurses are often tasked with a role of advocating and caring for the patients in the various healthcare facilities. Essentially, nursing practitioners are at the frontline of assessing the older adults who have recently fallen to prevent future falls and potential injury. Evidence-based practice plays an important role in the prevention of the falls among the elderly citizens in the hospitals. The nursing practitioners are often faced with a challenge of managing the falls of the elderly adults. The EBP develops a foundation, which allows the nursing practitioners to establish a suitable criterion for the management of falls among the older adults (Stokke, Olsen, Espehaug & Nortvedt, 2014). Among the measures that can be presented by the EBP include; screening of falls, comprehensive fall assessment, balance management and customized falls interventions programs for the patients. In addition to providing better management of the falls among the elderly adults, EBP increases the chances of better health outcomes. PEER REVIEWED ARTICLE SUMMARY 5 Conclusion Evidence-based practice has gained a significant momentum in nursing. Essentially, knowledge from basic science, research findings, and clinical knowledge form part of evidencebased practice. The application of EBP has transformed the various nursing practices. Melnyk, Gallagher‐Ford, Long & Fineout‐Overholt (2014), in the article attributed to the Worldviews of evidence-based practice, has presented the establishment of competencies in EBP to ensure better delivery of quality and reliable health care services to the patients. EBP fosters a foundation that allows better patient results, contributes to the science of nursing, maintains the practice current and relevant and increases certainty in decision-making. PEER REVIEWED ARTICLE SUMMARY 6 References Burns, E. R., Stevens, J. A., & Lee, R. (2016). The direct costs of fatal and non-fatal falls among older adults-United States. Journal of Safety Research, 58, 99-103. Doi: 10.1016/j.jsr.2016.05.001. Melnyk, B. M., Gallagher‐Ford, L., Long, L. E., & Fineout‐Overholt, E. (2014). The establishment of evidence‐based practice competencies for practicing registered nurses and advanced practice nurses in real‐world clinical settings: Proficiencies to improve healthcare quality, reliability, patient outcomes, and costs. Worldviews on Evidence‐Based Nursing, 11(1), 515. Doi:10.1111/wvn.12021. Stokke, K., Olsen, N, R., Espehaug, B., & Nortvedt, M. W. (2014). Evidence-based practice beliefs and implementation among nurses: A cross-sectional study. BMC Nursing. 13(1). Doi:10.1186/1472-6955-13-8. Running head: CRITIQUE OF RESEARCH STUDIES Critique of Research Studies Jeevan Simon NUR 504 Grand Canyon University Sep 19th, 2018 1 CRITIQUE OF RESEARCH STUDIES 2 Halter, M., Boiko, O., Pelone, F., Beighton, C., Harris, R., Gale, J. …& Drennan, V. (2017). The determinants and consequences of adult nursing staff turnover: a systematic review of systematic reviews. BMC Health Services Research. Quantitative Method Protection of Human Rights The research poses no indication that it has information requiring that individual’s human rights are protected. The main essence of the article is to analyze turnover rates among nurses and a deep assessment of the determinants that contribute to the overall shortage of nurses in healthcare. Thus, there is no infringement of human rights and neither is there a need to safeguard the human rights thereof in the article (Halter et al., 2017) Research Design The research design integrated in the course of the analysis follows the desired format whilst assessing something in detail; thus, the research therein delves into vital aspects such as the theoretical framework, previous data that analyzes the topic in question; literature review, the collection of data as well as a summation of the data therein in a bid to derive a conclusion. In doing so the elements of the research are easier to comprehend as a result. Each step is set out exclusively and gives accurate information on the research in order to effectively represent all the variables and ensure all aspects thereof are well defined and significant to the research (Halter et al., 2017). CRITIQUE OF RESEARCH STUDIES 3 Population and Sample The research integrates sample populations in the form of nurses that have since left their places of work for one reason or another and thereby seeks to delve in the quantitative analysis in great detail in a bid to provide a well summed up report of the predicament. The sampling of the quantitative data is represented in numerical information that the layman and the professionals in the field can easily comprehend. This representation is done additionally, in the form of graphs, data as well as inferring to other numerical data available (Halter et al., 2017). Procedure The data was collected by reviewing data of consequence that was collected between the period of 1990 and January 2015, from electronic databases such as EMBASE, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts, MEDLINE, CINAHL plus as well as SCOPUS. Additionally, the collection of data relied also on forward searching. Reviews were utilized in this plight and the analysis of the Systematic Reviews available allowed for the findings to be synthesized in a narrative (Halter et al., 2017). Data Collection and Measurement To collect the necessary data relative to the research, the study utilized nine reviews whereby, the research indicated that there was evidence of current nature that had been insufficient owing to the fact that it was not only complete, but it also had numerous limitations. It was noted that data for the essence of measuring in the form of moderate quality review evidence was lacking and as a result, it was possible to assess the determinants that contributed to turnover rates in adult nursing. At the individual level, this was noted as nurse stress as well as CRITIQUE OF RESEARCH STUDIES 4 the nuance of dissatisfied nurses. More so, the supervisory support and the managerial style were the key indicators of this plight (Halter et al., 2017). Stark, A., Kaduszkiewicz, H., Stein, J., Maier, W., Heser, K., Weyerer, S. …& Scherer, M. (2018). A qualitative study on older primary care patients’ perspectives on depression and its treatments-potential barriers to and opportunities for managing depression. BMC Family Practice. Qualitative Method Protection of Participants’ Rights The use of a semi-structured interview allows the rights of the participants to be protected in according to the participants the chance to choose if they would delve deeper on certain aspects of the interview as opposed to the other. In this way, the research is able to rely on credible information that is acquired directly from the informants and therefore the variables are reliable before and after they are measured (Stark et al., 2018). Research Design and Research Tradition The research allows the qualitative traditions incorporated in the assessment of depression among old people. It allows the author to focus on diverse aspects of the subject such as depression as a mental illness. Each tradition incorporated is part of a coherent whole in which case it delves into assumption on the nature of depression as well as how it affects the individuals in general, the study foci, as well as the methodology therein. The analysis prompts the researcher as well as any interested individual to assert that there may be comprehensive data that may need further research in a bid to avoid the assumptions thereby emphasizing the quality of the traditions in qualitative analysis (Stark et al., 2018). CRITIQUE OF RESEARCH STUDIES 5 Sample and Setting The focus of the study was based on the perceptions of 75 primary care patients, who happened to be aged seventy-five years and above. With the focus of the study on the elderly, it was facile to assess how the environment may have contributed to the manifestation of depressive symptoms in the elderly patients. The data was collected from three German cities and the study participants were recruited from the Age Mode cohort study. Determinants of the study included variables such as age was a key indicator (Stark et al., 2018). Data Collection As aforementioned, the data was collected from three German cities and the study participants were recruited from the Age Mode cohort study. Determinants of the study included variables such as age was a key indicator (Stark et al., 2018). Procedures The study was based on other research findings on the subject in which case the study relied on ten scholarly articles that articulately addressed the depression predicament among old people in great detail. The articles were derived from databases such as Google scholar among others thereby increasing the study’s credibility. Additionally, for the sake of any layman seeking to comprehend the elements depicted therein, key terms such as depression, opportunities for depression management and old aged patients are articulated (Stark et al., 2018). CRITIQUE OF RESEARCH STUDIES Enhancement of Trustworthiness The fact that the study relies on prior literary works published on the subject and utilizes credible databases such as PubMed and Google scholar allows for the information depicted therein being credible and as such highly reliable. Nevertheless, the qualitative research is credible owing to the fact that it also utilizes a semi-structured interview which allows for the collection of concise information from the informants thereof (Stark et al., 2018). 6 CRITIQUE OF RESEARCH STUDIES 7 References Halter, M., Boiko, O., Pelone, F., Beighton, C., Harris, R., Gale, J. …& Drennan, V. (2017). The determinants and consequences of adult nursing staff turnover: a systematic review of systematic reviews. BMC Health Services Research, 17(1). doi:10.1186/s12913-0172707-0. Stark, A., Kaduszkiewicz, H., Stein, J., Maier, W., Heser, K., Weyerer, S. …& Scherer, M. (2018). A qualitative study on older primary care patients’ perspectives on depression and its treatments-potential barriers to and opportunities for managing depression. BMC Family Practice. 19(1). doi:10.1186/s12875-017-0684-3.
Purchase answer to see full attachment