Topic 2 DQ 1

Topic 2 DQ 1

Please write a paragraph with your opinion based on the text bellow. Please include citations and references in case you need to used for the question.



“The United State has one of the worst records among industrialized nations- losing an average between four and seven children every day to child abuse and neglect.” (Child Abuse Statistics &Facts). Signs of abuse depend on the nature of abuse, physical abuse can include such signs as black eyes, bruising, cuts, burns and broken bones. Repeat injuries are a major red flag. Sexual abuse signs are listed as pain, itching, bleeding or bruising in the genitalia area, frequent urinary tract infections, and demonstrating sexual knowledge, curiosity or obsession with sexual matters. Emotional abuse can be more difficult to ascertain, it requires observation and interaction with the child. Signs of emotional abuse include but are not limited to displaying extreme behavior, excessive clinging or shunning parental emotion, sudden speech disorders, complaint of headache or stomach ache with no subjective findings, becoming angry, demanding while normally mild mannered, delayed development physically or emotionally. (How to Identify Child Abuse Ages 0-5, 2015). Neglect is usually easier to spot, the child may appear malnourished, unclean, and have no or limited medical records. There are risk factors which contribute to victimization. Children under the age of four, mentally or physically disabled and chronically ill children are at high risk. The risk factors for perpetration are categorized into individual, family and community factors, the list is long, but it is no surprise that stress, poverty, lack of education, and family history of violence are among the factors. (Center for Disease Control, 2018).

Erickson’s second stage of psychosocial development is autonomy versus shame/doubt. This stage of development happens in toddlers between the age of 18 months to approximately 3 years of age, as they are progressing in the aspect of self-control, specifically in potty training. (McLeod, 2018). The toddler is learning about himself during this stage and his genitalia may become a source of fascination. At this age children can identify themselves as being a boy or a girl, as parents teach the toddler their body parts they often unknowingly attach a negative connotation to the genital’s. Toddlers may experiment with different methods of urinating and can see others in gender roles. (Sexual Development from 18 months to 3 years Old, 2018). Milestone to consider for a toddler include: walking alone, drinking from a cup, picking up and eating small pieces of food, scribbling with a crayon, climbing up and onto things, pulling/pushing a toy, squatting, handing an object to someone, stacking objects, and turning pages of a book. (

If you suspect a child is being abused or neglected, you must make a report to local Child Protective Services or law enforcement. You can find out where to call by visiting the Child Welfare Information Gateway’s state reporting numbers website:

Name of victim
Name and contact information for parents or guardians
Reasons for suspected abuse or neglect
Description and location of victim’s physical injuries (if applicable)
Information freely disclosed by victim
Current location of victim
Known information regarding incident or chronology of events
This information was provided in the article Reporting Child Abuse and Neglect on the Virtual Lab School web site.


Child Abuse and Neglect Prevention (2018). Center for Disease Control

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Child Abuse and Neglect: Risk and Protective Factors. (2018). Center for Disease Control

Retrieved from

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