Need assistance on healthcare question
Please assist with the following question. When looking at the historical context of the French and Italian health
system, what financial challenges does the program have to ensure quality and equity of care provided to residents? Please include cited information with references. Lovett-Scott, M., & Prather, F. (2018). Global health systems: Comparing strategies for delivering health services. Retrieved from https://content.ashford.edu 9.2 HISTORICAL Since its inception in 1978, Italy’s National Health Service (NHS) has undergone a series of reforms aimed at ensuring the equitabledistribution of public health services throughout th e Italian state. “NHS was created to achieve the objective of the Italian Constitution whichd eclares that the Italian state has the responsibility of safeguarding the health of each citizen as an individual asset and a community interest”(Maio & Manzoli, 2002, p. 302). Table 91 identifies seven fundamental principles that establish the framework of Italy’s health ser viceincluding human dignity and equity (Ministerio delia Sanita, 2009). Table 9-1 The Italian national health service principles. Human dignity Every individual has to be treated with equal dignity and have equal rights irrespective of h is or her personal or social characteristics. Protection The individual health has to be protected with appropriate preventive measures and interv entions. Need Everyone has access to health care and available resources to meet the primary healthcare needs. Solidarity with the most vulnerable people Available resources have to be primarily allocated to support groups of people, individuals, groups of people, individuals and certain diseasesthat are socially, clinically, and epidemiol ogically important. Effectiveness and appropriateness of health interventions Resources must be channeled to services with scientifically demonstrated effectiveness and to individuals who can benefit the most fromthem. Equity Any individual must have access to the healthcare system with no differentiation or discrim ination among citizens and no barrier at the pointof use. Source: Health in Italy in the 21st century. Copenhagen, WHO Regional Office for Europe, 19 99:169. While the Ministry of Health retains ultimate responsibility for NHS, several legislative mea sures since 1992 have culminated inadministrative power progressively transferring to Ital y’s 20 regions. Some of the challenges facing Italy’s health care today are embedded infailed compulsory insurance schemes dating back to 1943 that set into motion the questionable a llocation of funds, overspending, andpolitical harangues between the state and the regions. Alternatively, Italy’s strengths in providing health care derive from building on lessonslear ned. During the 1990s Italy implemented several cost containment strategies (e.g., price co ntrols on drugs, keeping NHS salaries in linewith inflation) to develop a more efficient syste m of health care. “What appears to have been crucial to the success of Italy’s costcontainmentwas the shared recognition that, in contrast with past experience, the central g overnment would not bail out regional health systemsburdened with large deficits” (Cleme nts, Coady, & Gupta, 2012, p.14). At the beginning of the 21st century, significant Constitutional reform passed on more deci sional authority down to Italy’s 20 regions,presenting Italy with new challenges for develop ing a coordinated, quality system of health care. 8.2 HISTORICAL France, priding itself on its promise to take good care of its entire population, has had a for m of National Health Care since 1945. The countryhas always had a threefold goal; to provi de a single health insurer, make it compulsory for all employers and workers to pay premiu ms basedon their salaries, and allow patients to choose their own doctors. However, doctor s are permitted to charge additional fees and prescribetherapies, diagnostic procedures, an d medications as they see fit, without interference from the national health insurance. Unlik e somehealthcare systems that offer universal health there are no long waiting periods to s chedule elective surgery or see specialists in France. Legislation in 1999 further refined the national health insurance plan mandating that anyo ne with a regular residence permit was entitled tohealth benefits without strings attached. This legislation also clarified that illegal residents would be managed by giving them full co verage ifthey could prove they lived in a French territory for more than three months and h ad no financial means to pay for health care (GauthierVillars). In a 2000 WHO ranking of the best healthcare systems worldwide, France was ran ked number one. It has, over the past 30 years,been forced to reduce its healthcare coverag e and incrementally increase its healthcare taxes. However, consumers still give France hig hmarks for its healthcare delivery and quality.
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