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Please write a Paragraph answering to this discussion below with your opinion. Please include citations and references in alphabetical order in case of another source.


Within primary prevention, prevention of illness takes place (Magruder et al., 2016), including avoidance of the development of disease even if exposure happens (Bissell, 2006). It includes preparedness activities, and reducing exposure to environmental risk factors, in addition to improving resilience to them (Rose, 1992). For example, efforts exist in the form of promoting proper nutrition or utilizing vaccines to prevent disease (Rose, 1992). During the Haiti earthquake, the simple existence of the disaster team in preparation for the disaster was a primary prevention measure.

Resources were significantly limited in Haiti; most primary prevention efforts would have needed to take place in the initial preparation phase, before starting the mission. There could have been things that would have better prepared the volunteers, that also would constitute as primary prevention, that wasn’t observed in the video journal, but that doesn’t necessarily mean that it didn’t happen. For example, in addition to providing immunizations and prevention for the Haitian people, it is also important to also have good health protection practices for the volunteers. Education would’ve been helpful to address environmental conditions, sanitation, food preparation, and infection control practices. Learning about Haiti’s health and culture practices to help avoid and prevent the spread of disease. For example, better options to replace the bucket used for handwashing, how to safely prepare cultural food choices, and how to prevent contraindicated practices that could cause barriers to infection control or promote complications.

secondary prevention

Secondary prevention occurs after a disease has originated but before it becomes symptomatic (Howlett & Stein, 2016). It involves using disease control tools to reduce the spread of an epidemic and minimizing the harm that occurs once a disease or injury affects an individual or population (Bissell, 2006). Therefore, early interventions offer more optimal outcomes (Magruder et al., 2016).

The monitoring of minimum standards for water safety security, sanitation, shelter, and personal hygiene is critical for health promotion after disasters. Awareness of the emergence of water and foodborne disease is of importance to the health of the victims (Jafari, Shahsanai, Memarzadeh, & Loghmani, 2011). Antibiotics can often be considered a primary intervention to prevent disease, but in this case, many people were already ill and were treated to avoid further complications; making it become a secondary intervention.The empathetic conversation and Bible reading with the grieving man in the hospital; showing support and stating the fact that someone cared was in some ways, important as medical tasks. This secondary prevention is addressing the needs of the man who has already endured the emotional distress of the disaster and is helping to prevent his anguish from developing into a long-term psychological diagnosis.

tertiary prevention

The tertiary prevention phase is characteristically long in duration, and often an opportune time to initiate new aspects of primary prevention as the society attempts to “build back better” and reduce future risk (Keim, 2016).Disaster recovery actions promote the goal of decreasing the damage caused by a disaster and rebuilding communities to recover post-impact. Efforts would involve establishing interventions that are geared towards meeting the long-term needs of the victims and the community (Howlett & Stein, 2016). Steps are taken to help individuals who have been injured or ill to learn life skills and focus on regaining the full capacity to live normal lives (Bissell, 2006). Such needs are determined by the nature and extent of damage that had occurred to individuals or the community as a whole. An excellent example would include the provision of a place where individuals could have the opportunity of sharing with others about their experiences during the disaster thereby contributing to a positive healing process.Efforts would entail working in collaboration with other rescue teams such as the local police, fire department, and the Red Cross.


Bissell, R. (2006). Public Health and Medicine in Emergency Management. In Disciplines, Disasters a